Vegetation Index of the Gangetic Plain, South of the Himalayas, India
This FAPAR image shows the vegetation index of northern India, just below the Himalayas. A band of terrain at the foot of the mountains shows a good to high index (green to red), while the land to the South shows a lower index (yellow).
In the midst of that green and red band is a whitish-yellow patch: the city of New Delhi. The land to the West of the city, in the state of Haryana, shows a higher index (red) than the land to the East (green), in the state of Uttar Pradesh.
Haryana is a landlocked state in northern India. The altitude of Haryana varies between 700 to 3600 ft (200 metres to 1200 metres) above sea level. An area of 1,553 km2 is covered by forest. Haryana has four main geographical features: the Yamuna-Ghaggar plain forming the largest part of the state, the Shivalik Hills to the northeast, semi-desert sandy plain to the southwest and the Aravalli Range in the south.
Uttar Pradesh shares an international border with Nepal and is bounded by seven Indian states. Uttar Pradesh has 12.8% land under forest cover now. In spite of alarming deforestation and poaching of wild life, a diverse flora and fauna exists. It can be divided into two distinct hypsographical regions: the larger Gangetic Plain region in the north, and the smaller Vindhya Hills and Plateau Region in the south.
The former includes the Ganga-Yamuna Doab, the Ghaghra plains, the Ganga plains and the Terai. It has highly fertile alluvial soils and flat topography – (slope 2 m/km) – broken by numerous ponds, lakes and rivers. The Vindhya Hills and Plateau region it is characterised by hard rock strata and varied topography of hills, plains, valleys and plateau; limited availability of water makes the region relatively arid.