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Environmental Threats to Lesser Sunda Islands

8.6S 121.0E

May 22nd, 2012 Category: Snapshots

Indonesia - May 20th, 2012

This image shows several of the Lesser Sunda Islands, a group of islands in the southern Maritime Southeast Asia, north of Australia. The three largest islands visible here are Sumba, Flores and Timor (lower half of image, from left to right). The islands are part of a volcanic arc, the Sunda Arc, formed by subduction along the Java Trench in the Java Sea.

Although most of the vegetation on these islands is dry forest there are patches of rainforest on these islands too, especially in lowland areas and along riverbanks. However, the ecosystem is threatened: more than half of the original vegetation of the islands has been cleared for planting of rice and other crops, for settlement and by consequent forest fires.

While many ecological problems affect both small islands and large landmasses, small islands suffer their particular problems and are highly exposed to external forces. Development pressures on small islands are increasing, although their effects are not always anticipated. Although Indonesia is richly endowed with natural resources, the resources of the small islands of Nusa Tenggara are limited and specialised; furthermore human resources in particular are limited.

Jakarta and Mount Gede Volcano, Indonesia

6.2S 106.8E

January 19th, 2012 Category: Volcanoes

Indonesia - January 4th, 2012

In the upper right corner of this APM image is Jakarta, the capital and largest city of Indonesia. It is located on the northwest coast of Java, at the mouth of the Ciliwung River on Jakarta Bay, which is an inlet of the Java Sea. The city has an area of 661 square kilometres (255 sq mi).

Jakarta lies in a low, flat basin, averaging 7 metres (23 ft) above sea level; 40% of Jakarta, particularly the northern areas, is below sea level, while the southern parts are comparatively hilly. Rivers flow from the Puncak highlands to the south of the city, across the city northwards towards the Java Sea; the most important is the Ciliwung River, which divides the city into the western and eastern principalities. Other rivers include the Pesanggrahan, and Sunter.

Visible to the south, near the right edge, in the full image, is Mount Gede or Gunung Gede, a stratovolcano in West Java, Indonesia. The volcano contains two peaks: Mount Gede and Mount Pangrango. Seven craters are located in the complex: Baru, Gumuruh (2,927 m), Lanang (2,800 m), Kawah Leutik, Ratu (2,800 m), Sela (2,709 m) and Wadon (2,600 m). Historical volcanic activity has been recorded since the 16th century.

Jakarta on Northwest Coast of Java, Indonesia

6.2S 106.8E

October 10th, 2011 Category: Mountains

Indonesia - October 6th, 2011

This APM image shows Jakarta, the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of Java, it has an area of 661 square kilometres (255 sq mi).

Jakarta’s position on Java’s northwest coast is at the mouth of the Ciliwung River on Jakarta Bay, which is an inlet of the Java Sea. Jakarta lies in a low, flat basin, averaging 7 metres (23 ft) above sea level; 40% of Jakarta, particularly the northern areas, is below sea level, while the southern parts are comparatively hilly.

Rivers flow from the Puncak highlands to the south of the city, across the city northwards towards the Java Sea. These rivers, combined with Jakarta’s low topography make it prone to flooding from swollen rivers in the wet season and high sea tides.

Jakarta and Nearby Volcanic Summits, Indonesia – October 4th, 2009

6.2S 106.8E

October 4th, 2009 Category: Image of the day, Volcanoes

Indonesia - September 6th, 2009

Indonesia - September 6th, 2009

Jakarta, the capital and largest city of Indonesia, has an area of 661.52 square kilometres (255.41 sq mi) and a population of 8,489,910. It is located on the northwestern coast of Java, at the mouth of the Ciliwung River on Jakarta Bay, which is an inlet of the Java Sea.

The northern part of Jakarta is constituted on a plain land, approximately eight meters above the sea level. This contributes to the frequent flooding. The southern parts of the city are hilly.

There are about thirteen rivers flowing through Jakarta, mostly flowing from the hilly southern parts of the city northwards towards the Java Sea. The most important river is the Ciliwung River, which divides the city into the western and eastern principalities.

South of the city, two large summits are visible in this orthorectified image: Mount Salak (lower left) and Mount Gede (bottom center).

Mount Salak is an eroded volcanic range in West Java. Several satellite cones occur on the southeast flank and on the northern foot. Two craters are found at the summit.

Mount Gede, or Gunung Gede, is a stratovolcano in West Java. The volcano contains two peaks: Mount Gede and Mount Pangrango. Seven craters are located in the complex: Baru, Gumuruh (2,927 m), Lanang (2,800 m), Kawah Leutik, Ratu (2,800 m), Sela (2,709 m) and Wadon (2,600 m).

Volcanoes of Java, Indonesia

7.6S 110.7E

July 6th, 2009 Category: Volcanoes

Java, Indonesia - June 25th, 2009

Java, Indonesia - June 25th, 2009

Java (below), the world’s 13th largest island at approximately 139,000 km2, lies between Sumatra to the west and Bali (lower right) to the east. Borneo (above) lies to the north and Christmas Island to the south.

Here, rivermouths along the southern coast of Borneo spill dark brown sediments into the Java Sea. Sediments are also present along the northern coast of Java, although they are lighter in color.

Java is almost entirely of volcanic origin; it contains no fewer than thirty-eight mountains forming an east-west spine which have at one time or another been active volcanoes. Many of this volcanoes are visible here, their peaks ringed by clouds.

The highest volcano in Java is Mount Semeru (3,676 m), the third peak from the right. The most active volcano in Java and also in Indonesia is Mount Merapi (2,968 m), visible in the center of Java in the full image.

Further mountains and highlands help to split the interior into a series of relatively isolated regions suitable for wet-rice cultivation; the rice lands of Java are among the richest in the world.

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