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Posts tagged Buhayrat ath Tharthar

Largest Lakes of Turkey, Iraq and Iran – September 15th, 2009

33.9N 43.2E

September 15th, 2009 Category: Image of the day, Lakes, Rivers

Turkey, Iraq and Iran - August 18th, 2009

Turkey, Iraq and Iran - August 18th, 2009

Each of the three large lakes in this image, which stretches from Iraq’s alluvial plain, below, to parts of Turkey and Iran, above, is the biggest of its respective country.

In Iraq, the dark blue waters of Lake Tharthar, or Buhayrat ath Tharthar, stand out between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers. It is the largest lake in Iraq, although its size shrinks and expands dramatically with the seasons. The construction of several dams has made it an important source for irrigation.

Lake Van (top left), in Turkey’s Van District, has an area of 3,755 km2 (1,450 sq mi) and a volume of 607 cubic kilometres (146 cu mi).

Finally, Lake Urmia (top center), in northwestern Iran, has a surface area of approximately 5,200 km² (2,000 miles²).

Saudi Arabia, Syria, Iraq and Neighbors – August 2nd, 2009

32.8N 39.0E

August 2nd, 2009 Category: Image of the day, Lakes, Rivers

Saudi Arabia, Syria, Iraq and neighbors - June 21st, 2009

Saudi Arabia, Syria, Iraq and neighbors - June 21st, 2009

The navy blue of the Mediterranean Sea (above) and the Red Sea (below) interrupt the expanses of brown and yellow land. Egypt is the only country visible here that touches both seas. Of particular note in Egyptian territory here are the Nile River (bottom left corner) and the Sinai Peninsula.

Moving up the Mediterranean coast, one comes first to Israel/Palestine and the Dead Sea, then Lebanon, then Syria. Heading inland into Syria, the Euphrates River moves southeastward to Iraq. The two greenish lakes are in Iraqi territory, Buhayrat ath Tharthar (above) and Lake Milh (below).

Returning to the south, Saudi Arabia is crossed by a bright orange swath of desert before arriving at the shores of the Red Sea. At the western extreme of this orange area, between Saudi Arabia and Israel/Palestine, is Jordan.

Iraq’s Alluvial Plain – July 10th, 2009

31.8N 45.9E

July 10th, 2009 Category: Image of the day, Lakes, Rivers

Iraq - June 3rd, 2009

Iraq - June 3rd, 2009

An alluvial plain, visible in the center of the image, begins north of Baghdad and extends to the Persian Gulf (lower right). Here the Tigris (above) and Euphrates (below) Rivers lie above the level of the plain in many places.

The whole area is a river delta interlaced by the channels of the two rivers and by irrigation canals. Intermittent lakes, fed by the rivers in flood, also characterize this area of Iraq.

A fairly large area (15,000 km² or 5,800 mi²) just above the confluence of the two rivers at Al Qurnah and extending east of the Tigris beyond the Iranian border is marshland, known as Hawr al Hammar, the result of centuries of flooding and inadequate drainage. Much of it is permanent marsh, but some parts dry out in early winter, and other parts become marshland only in years of great flood.

Because the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates above their confluence are heavily silt-laden, irrigation and fairly frequent flooding deposit large quantities of silty loam in much of the delta area. Windborne silt also contributes to the total deposit of sediments.

It has been estimated that the delta plains are built up at the rate of nearly twenty centimeters in a century. In some areas, major floods lead to the deposit in temporary lakes of as much as thirty centimeters of mud.

The Tigris and Euphrates also carry large quantities of salts. These, too, are spread on the land by sometimes excessive irrigation and flooding. A high water table and poor surface and subsurface drainage tend to concentrate the salts near the surface of the soil.

In general, the salinity of the soil increases from Baghdad south to the Persian Gulf and severely limits productivity in the region south of Al Amarah. The salinity is reflected in the large lake in central Iraq, southwest of Baghdad, known as Bahr al Milh (Sea of Salt). There are two other major lakes in the country to the north of Bahr al Milh: Buhayrat ath Tharthar and Buhayrat al Habbaniyah.