Diverse Terrain of Pakistan29.1N 70.6E
Pakistan covers 340,403 square miles (881,640 km2), approximately equalling the combined land areas of France and the United Kingdom. Its eastern regions are located on the Indian tectonic plate and the western and northern regions on the Iranian plateau and Eurasian landplate.
Apart from the 1,046-kilometre (650 mi) Arabian Sea coastline, Pakistan’s land borders total 6,774 kilometres—2,430 kilometres (1,509 mi) with Afghanistan to the northwest (upper left), 523 kilometres (325 mi) with China to the northeast, 2,912 kilometres (1,809 mi) with India to the east (right) and 909 kilometres (565 mi) with Iran to the southwest (lower left).
The northern and western highlands of Pakistan contain the towering Karakoram and Pamir mountain ranges, which incorporate some of the world’s highest peaks, including K2 (28,250 ft; 8,611 m) and Nanga Parbat (26,660 ft; 8,126 m). A small part of these mountain ranges is visible in the upper right corner.
The Balochistan Plateau lies to the west, and the Thar Desert and an expanse of alluvial plains, the Punjab and Sind, lie to the east. The 1,000-mile-long (1,609-km) Indus River and its tributaries flow through the country from the Kashmir region to the Arabian Sea. The river’s course can be clearly seen through the center of this image, reaching from the mountains in the north to the sea in the south.
Pakistan has four seasons: a cool, dry winter from December through February; a hot, dry spring from March through May; the summer rainy season, or southwest monsoon period, from June through September; and the retreating monsoon period of October and November. The onset and duration of these seasons vary somewhat according to location. Rainfall can vary radically from year to year, and successive patterns of flooding and drought are also not uncommon.