Sea of Marmara, Bosphorus Strait and Lake Iznik, Turkey – April 26th, 2009
The Sea of Marmara, also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, is the inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey’s Asian and European regions.
The Bosphorus Strait (upper left quadrant) connects it to the Black Sea and the Dardanelles strait to the Aegean. The city of Istanbul is visible along the shoreline of the sea and the Bosphorus Strait.
The sea has an area of 11,350 km² with the greatest depth reaching 1 370 m. Its salinity averages about 22 parts per thousand, which is slightly greater than that of the Black Sea but only about two-thirds that of most oceans.
However, the water is much more saline at the sea-bottom, averaging salinities of around 38 parts per thousand — similar to that of the Mediterranean Sea.
This high-density saline water, like that of the Black Sea itself, does not migrate to the surface. Water from the Granicus, Susurluk, Biga and Gonen Rivers also reduces the salinity of the sea, though with less influence than on the Black Sea. With little land in Thrace draining southward, almost all of these rivers flow from Anatolia.
Another body of water, Lake İznik, is visible in the lower right quadrant. The lake is located in Turkey’s Bursa Province. It has an area of 290.00 km² and maximum depth of about 80 m.