Environmental Issues Facing Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan40.4N 49.8E
The Absheron Peninsula is a peninsula in Azerbaijan that extends 37 miles (60 km) eastward into the Caspian Sea, and reaches a maximum width of 19 miles (30 km). Though technically the easternmost extension of the Caucasus Mountains, the landscape is only mildly hilly, a gently undulating plain that ends in a long spit of sand dunes known as Shah Dili, and now declared the Absheron National Park. In this part the peninsula is dissected by ravines and characterized by frequent salt lakes.
The peninsula is also host to Baku, the biggest and the most populous city of the country, and also the Baku metropolitan area, with its satellite cities Sumgayit and Khyrdalan. As approx. 40% of the country’s population and 70% of the industrial potential of the country is concentrated in the Absheron peninsula, most of the ecological problems in urgent need of solution exist in this area.
One of the primary problems of the Absheron peninsula is related to the contamination of land, mainly with oil and layer waters during oil-gas extraction and drilling works, formation of artificial lakes and pons due to failure to control layer waters, and accumulation of wastes in these territories formed during oil refining process.
Another ecological problem is connected with the situation of sewage systems, with much being discharged into the Sea and internal water basins without being purified. Along with the waste waters oil products, suspension substances, sulphate compounds, chloride salts, superficially active substances, fenol and different other heavy metals are also discharged into water basins (click here for more information).