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Confluence of Negro and Solimões Rivers by Manaus, Brazil

3.1S 60W

September 16th, 2010 Category: Fires, Rivers

Smoke from Fires in Bolivia - September 14th, 2010

The Negro River (dark, upper left) and Solimões River (tan) cross the upper half of this image. The two rivers meet near Manáus, the capital of the state of Amazonas in Brazil.

Their confluence is quite particular, as the rivers’ different colored waters run side by side without mixing for about 6km due to differences in temperature, speed and water density.

The lower half of the image is partially veiled by smoke blowing northward from many fires in Bolivia and Brazil that have been burning over the last month.

Smoke Fires Bolivia from Manaus to Mar Chiquita

16.9S 62.5W

August 29th, 2010 Category: Fires

Smoke from Fires in Bolivia - August 26th, 2010

The skies over huge expanses of land in South America continue to be choked by smoke from fires blazing in Bolivia. The thumbnail image focuses on the smoke over Bolivia, east of the Salar de Uyuni, the large white salt flat at the lower left edge), and the Andes Mountains.

Upon opening the full image, the cloud of smoke can be seen reaching from Manáus, Brazil, in the North, to near the salt flats of the Salinas Grandes and the green saline lake called Mar Chiquita, in Argentina, in the South.

Smoke from Fires in Bolivia, from Andes Mountains to Manaus – August 28th, 2010

August 28th, 2010 Category: Fires, Image of the day, Lakes, Mountains, Salt Flats

Smoke from Fires in Bolivia - August 25th, 2010

Fires in Bolivia have burned more than 3.7 milion acres (1.5 million hectares) in the past few weeks and are advancing “dangerously” in four of the nation’s nine states, reported the government’s news service.

A state of emergency has been declared in Bolivia’s Santa Cruz state, one of four states in the nation battling wildfires. In addition to Santa Cruz, the fires are burning large segments of Pando, Beni and La Paz states. The flames are fanned by high wind gusts and arid conditions caused by drought, officials said.

The thumbnail image focuses on the area near the border between Peru (below) and Bolivia (above). The Andes Mountains are preventing the smoke from spreading further south into Peru. Clearly visible south of the mountains are Lake Titicaca and the Salar de Uyuni. The full extent of the veil of smoke can be seen upon opening the full image, reaching northward all the way to Manáus, Brazil.

Vegetation Index and Deforestation Near Manáus and Santarém, Brazil – December 2nd, 2009

3.1S 60W

December 2nd, 2009 Category: Climate Change, Image of the day, Rivers

Brazil - November 19th, 2009

Brazil - November 19th, 2009

This FAPAR image shows an area of Amazon rainforest in Brazil, between Santarém in the state of Pará, where the Tapajós joins the Amazon River (right edge), and Manáus at the convergence of the Negro and Solimões (Upper Amazon) Rivers (left). FAPAR stands for Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation, which corresponds to the  area’s vegetation index.

In FAPAR images, the color spectrum over land runs from red (1.0), to green, to yellow and white (0.0), while bodies of water, such as the Amazon River running through the image center, generally appear blue.

High photosynthetic activity is present in dark red regions, such as those concentrated on the left side of the image. The photosynthetic activity decreases as one moves to the right side of the image, although green areas are also productive. Yellow to white zones, with the exception of clouds, indicate a low degree of photosynthetic activity; however, few such areas are present here.

Upon opening the full image, the distinctive herringbone pattern of some deforested areas is visible. Near the Amazon River, these areas appear as yellow lines amidst the surrounding green, while in the upper left quadrant the lines are green in contrast to the surrounding dark red.

The “Meeting of Waters” Near Manaus, Brazil – October 24th, 2009

3.1S 60W

October 24th, 2009 Category: Image of the day, Rivers

Brazil - September 29th, 2009

Brazil - September 29th, 2009

The city of Manaus, the capital of the state of Amazonas in Brazil, is situated at the confluence of the Negro and Solimões Rivers. The Negro River, true to its name, appears to have black waters, while the Solimões (or Upper Amazon) River is light brown.

The two rivers’ confluence is called the Meeting of Waters (in Portuguese, Encontro das Águas). For 6 km (3.7 mi) the rivers’ waters run side by side without mixing (near right edge, southeast of the city). This phenomena is due to differences in temperature, speed and water density of the two rivers. The Negro River flows at near 2 km per hour at a temperature of 22°C, while the  Solimões River flows between 4 to 6 km per hour at a temperature of 28°C.