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Contrails Over Jutland Peninsula, Denmark and Germany

57.0N 8.8E

June 5th, 2013 Category: Climate Change, Clouds MODISTerra

Denmark – June 4th, 2013

Condensation trails create criss-crossed lines over the Jutland Peninsula (center), the northern part of which belongs to Denmark and the southern part of which belongs to Germany. Depending on the temperature and humidity at the altitude the contrail forms, they may be visible for only a few seconds or minutes, or may persist for hours and spread to be several miles wide. Persistent spreading contrails are thought to have a significant effect on global climate.

Contrails, by affecting the Earth’s radiation balance, act as a radiative forcing. Studies have found that contrails trap outgoing longwave radiation emitted by the Earth and atmosphere (positive radiative forcing) at a greater rate than they reflect incoming solar radiation (negative radiative forcing).

Global radiative forcing has been calculated from the reanalysis data, climatological models and radiative transfer codes. It is estimated to amount to 0.012 W/m2 for 2005, with an uncertainty range of 0.005 to 0.0026 W/m2, and with a low level of scientific understanding. Therefore, the overall net effect of contrails is positive, i.e. a warming effect.

However, the effect varies daily and annually, and overall the magnitude of the forcing is not well known: globally (for 1992 air traffic conditions), values range from 3.5 mW/m2 to 17 mW/m2. Other studies have determined that night flights are mostly responsible for the warming effect: while accounting for only 25% of daily air traffic, they contribute 60 to 80% of contrail radiative forcing. Similarly, winter flights account for only 22% of annual air traffic, but contribute half of the annual mean radiative forcing.

Hamburg and Jutland Peninsula, Germany and Denmark – February 13th, 2012

53.5N 9.9E

February 13th, 2012 Category: Image of the day

Denmark - February 10th, 2012

This wide-swath ASAR image shows the Jutland Peninsula, a peninsula in Europe, divided between Denmark and Germany. The Danish portion has an area of 29,775 km2 (11,496 sq mi) and a population of 2,513,601 (2007). Population density is 84 per km² (218 per sq.mi.). Its terrain is relatively flat, with heaths, plains and peat bogs in the west and a more elevated and slightly hilly terrain in the east.

The northernmost part of Jutland is separated by the Limfjord from the mainland, but is still commonly considered as part of the peninsula. It only became an island following a flood in 1825. The Danish Wadden Sea Islands and the German North Frisian Islands stretch along the southwest coast of Jutland in the German Bight.

Visible at the center of the bottom edge is Hamburg, located on the southern point of the Jutland Peninsula, directly between Continental Europe to its south, Scandinavia to its north, the North Sea to its west, and the Baltic Sea to its east. It is the second-largest city in Germany and the seventh-largest city in the European Union. The city is home to over 1.8 million people, while the Hamburg Metropolitan Region has more than 4.3 million inhabitants. Situated on the river Elbe, the port of Hamburg is the third-largest port in Europe (after the Port of Rotterdam and the Port of Antwerp) and it is among the twenty largest in the world.

Limfjord Sound on Jutland Peninsula, Denmark

56.8N 8.9E

June 10th, 2011 Category: Clouds

Denmark - May 23rd, 2011

This image focuses on the upper part of the Jutland Peninsula, in Denmark. Visible by the left edge are contrails (or condensation trails) caused by passing aircraft.

The body of water near the northern shores is the Limfjord, a shallow sound that separates the island of Vendsyssel-Thy from the rest of the Jutland Peninsula.

The sound extends from Thyborøn Channel on the North Sea to Hals on the Kattegat. It is approximately 180 kilometres long and of an irregular shape with several bays, narrowings, and islands, most notably Mors.

 

Islands East and West of the Jutland Peninsula, Denmark and Germany

55.2N 8.5E

May 4th, 2011 Category: Sediments

Denmark and Germany - May 2nd, 2011

There are about 406 islands in Denmark, not including the Faroe Islands or Greenland. Some 70 of them are populated but the remainder are uninhabited. The largest islands include Funen (left) and Zealand (right), visible to the east of the Jutland peninsula.

Many other islands can be observed by the Germany-Denmark border on the west side of the peninsula. These are the Frisian Islands, also known as the Wadden Sea Islands.

The islands shield the mudflat region of the Wadden Sea (large parts of which fall dry during low tide) from the North Sea. Here, muddy tan sediments can be seen between the peninsula’s coast and the islands, and pour outwards from the mouth of the Elbe River in Germany.

River Elbe by Base of Jutland Peninsula, Denmark and Germany

55.3N 9.5E

April 29th, 2011 Category: Rivers, Sediments

Denmark - April 15th, 2011

Denmark is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany.

In Germany, near the base of the peninsula, one can see the River Elbe, spilling brown sediments into the North Sea. Denmark borders both the Baltic and the North Sea.

Denmark consists of a large peninsula, Jutland (Jylland) and many islands. The largest islands include Funen (left) and Zealand (right), visible to the east of the peninsula.